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石墨烯应用领域有哪些?
双击自动滚屏 发布者:admin 发布时间:2017/3/18 16:26:44 阅读:268次 【字体:

石墨烯应用领域有哪些?

作者:中国储能网新闻中心  来源:能源观察网  发布时间:2016-3-13 13:57:35

中国储能网讯:石墨烯(Graphene)又称单层墨,是一种新型的二维纳米材料,是目前发现的硬度最高、韧性最强的纳米材料。因其特殊纳米结构和优异的物理化学性能,石墨烯在电子学、光学、磁学、生物医学、催化、储能和传感器等领域应用前景广阔,被公认为21世纪的“未来材料”和“革命性材料”。石墨烯相关专利开始呈现爆发式增长(2010 年353 件,2012年达1829 件)。总体看来,石墨烯技术开始进入快速成长期,并迅速向技术成熟期跨越。全球石墨烯技术研发布局竞争日趋激烈,各国的技术优势正在逐步形成。

石墨烯出现在实验室中是在2004年,当时,英国曼彻斯特大学的两位科学家安德烈·杰姆和克斯特亚·诺沃消洛夫发现他们能用一种非常简单的方法得到越来越薄的石墨薄片。他们从石墨中剥离出石墨片,然后将薄片的两面粘在一种特殊的胶带上,撕开胶带,就能把石墨片一分为二。不断地这样操作,于是薄片越来越薄,最后,他们得到了仅由一层碳原子构成的薄片,这就是石墨烯。这以后,制备石墨烯的新方法层出不穷,经过5年的发展,人们发现,将石墨烯带入工业化生产的领域已为时不远了。因此,两人在2010年获得诺贝尔物理学奖。

石墨烯应用领域?

中科院近期发布的一份报告指出,石墨烯的研究和产业化发展持续升温,从石墨烯专利领域分布来看,其应用技术研究布局热点包括:石墨烯用作锂离子电池电极材料、太阳能电池电极材料、薄膜晶体管制备、传感器、半导体器件、复合材料制备、透明显示触摸屏、透明电极等。主要集中在如下四个领域:

(一)传感器领域。石墨烯因其独特的二维结构在传感器中有广泛的应用,具有体积小、表面积大、灵敏度高、响应时间快、电子传递快、易于固定蛋白质并保持其活性等特点,能提升传感器的各项性能。主要用于气体、生物小分子、酶和DNA 电化学传感器的制作。新加坡南洋理工大学开发出了敏感度是普通传感器1000 倍的石墨烯光传感器;美国伦斯勒理工学院研制出性能远超现有商用气体传感器的廉价石墨烯海绵传感器。

(二)储能和新型显示领域。石墨烯具有极好的电导性和透光性,作为透明导电电极材料,在触摸屏、液晶显示、储能电池等方面有很好的应用。石墨烯被认为是触摸屏制造中最有潜力替代氧化铟锡的材料,三星、索尼、辉锐、3M、东丽、东芝等龙头企业均在此领域作了重点研发布局。美国德州大学奥斯汀分校研究人员利用KOH对石墨烯进行化学修饰重构形成多孔结构,得到的超级电容的储能密度接近铅酸电池。密歇根理工大学科学家研发出一种独特蜂巢状结构的三维石墨烯电极,光电转换效率达到7.8%,且价格低廉,有望取代铂在太阳能电池中的应用。东芝公司研发出石墨烯与银纳米线复合透明电极,并实现了大面积化。

(三)半导体材料领域。石墨烯被认为是替代硅的理想材料,大量有实力的企业均开展了石墨烯半导体器件的研发。韩国成均馆大学开发出了高稳定性n型石墨烯半导体,可以长时间暴露在空气中使用。美国哥伦比亚大学研发出石墨烯-硅光电混合芯片,在光互连和低功率光子集成电路领域具有广泛的应用前景。IBM 的研究人员开发出了石墨烯场效应晶体管,其截止频率可达100GHz,频率性能远超相同栅极长度的最先进硅晶体管的截止频率(40GHz)。

(四)生物医学领域。石墨烯及其衍生物在纳米药物运输系统、生物检测、生物成像、肿瘤治疗等方面的应用广阔。以石墨烯为基层的生物装置或生物传感器可以用于细菌分析、DNA 和蛋白质检测。如美国宾夕法尼亚大学开发的石墨烯纳米孔设备可以快速完成DNA 测序。石墨烯量子点应用于生物成像中,与荧光体相比具有荧光更稳定、不会出现光漂白和不易光衰等特点。石墨烯在生物医学领域的应用研究虽处于起步阶段,但却是产业化前景最为广阔的应用领域之一。

 
 

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